It refers to the process whereby red blood cells rupture and their contents leak out into the bloodstream. Hemolysis can happen in vivo or in vitro, the first being linked to medical conditions, and the latter being a marked challenge for the medical sector as it hinders clinical testing.

Below we discuss the two scenarios of red blood cell lysis, when it occurs in the body and outside of it, giving an overview of how it occurs and its significance.

Red blood cell lysis in vivo

In vivo hemolysis has numerous causes and is linked with multiple diseases. It is characteristic of a group of conditions known as hemolytic anemias, the causes of which include immune-mediated erythrocyte destruction, such as neonatal isoerythrolysis; incompatible blood transfusion; drugs including penicillin and heparin; fragmentation, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), vasculitis, and uremia; hemoparasites, such as Babesia spp.; infectious agents, including Leptospira, Ehrlichia, Clostridium, and equine infectious anemia virus; hypo-osmolality; hypophosphatemia; some chemicals and plants, such as red maple and phenothiazine; and liver failure.

Other causes of hemolysis include artificial heart values, heart-lung bypass machines, pyruvate kinase deficiency, Wiscott-Aldridge Syndrome, HELLP Syndrome, and more. In total, there may be more than 50 causes of in vivo hemolysis. These causes can be classified as immune or nonimmune, hereditary or acquired.

Essentially, hemolysis occurs in vivo when the rate of red blood cell destruction is increased. This leads to hemoglobin being released into the bloodstream. Usually, red blood cells live for around 120 days, and when they die, the spleen removes them from the blood.

Uterine Artery Hemorrhage

Hemorrhage from the uterine arteries (i.e., the uterine branch of the vaginal artery), the uterine artery, and the uterine branch of the ovarian artery is the most common cause of death of the postpartum mare. A study of 98 mares that died postpartum revealed that 40 died from a ruptured uterine artery.61 It is uncommon for these arteries to rupture at times other than in the first several days postpartum.

The condition is usually seen in older mares. Affected mares are often initially in quite an amount of pain, especially if the blood is contained within the broad ligament. The rectal examination in these mares generally reveals a fluctuant mass in the broad ligament. If the broad ligament ruptures and the blood gains access to the abdominal cavity, the mare may not exhibit as much pain. On rectal examination, the broad ligament has a more edematous feel. These mares generally have very pale mucous membranes, a weak pulse, and an elevated heart rate, and they are anxious and often sweating.

Treatment varies depending on the clinician, but it essentially follows the approach taken for hemorrhagic shock (Gentaur).58 Attempts to ligate the ruptured artery have met with limited success.

PCR-MPX218-48D Bioingentech
PCR-MPX218-96D Bioingentech
MULTIPLEX KIT PCR Babesia & Theileria PCR kit
PCR-MPX401-48D Bioingentech
MULTIPLEX KIT PCR Babesia & Theileria PCR kit
PCR-MPX401-96D Bioingentech
Leaf PCR Kit
11140007-1 Bio-WORLD

Filter Transfer Sets

Configurable filter assemblies consist of filter capsules assembled with tubing and connectors for immediate connection to single-use or stainless-steel systems.

Filter Transfer Sets offer:

  • Particle, pre- and bioburden reduction filters
  • Sterile and mycoplasma retention filters
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Filter Assemblies Virus Filter Assemblies Filter Assemblies Final Filling Sensor Assemblies Large Scale Filter Assemblies
Product Name Filter Transfer Sets Virus Filter Transfer Sets Filter Transfer Sets Final Filling Sensor Transfer Sets Maxicaps® MR
Scale PD – Commercial Manufacturing PD – Commercial Manufacturing Clinical – Commercial Manufacturing PD – Commercial Manufacturing Commercial Manufacturing
Filtration Area 0.016 – 3 m2
0.17 – 32.3 ft2
0.2 – 2.4 m2
2.15 – 28.8 ft2
0.05 – 1 m2
0.5 – 10.8 ft2
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32.3 – 290.6 ft2
Delivery Condition Sterile Sterile Sterile Sterile Non-sterile | Sanitary | Sterile
Sterilization Method Gamma irradiation | Autoclave Gamma irradiation Gamma irradiation Gamma irradiation None | Gamma irradiation / Autoclave


Avoiding hemolysis of biological samples

Hemolysis of blood samples before they are tested is a major challenge within the medical industry. It is particularly impactful on emergency departments who need to acquire accurate test results with speed. Hemolysis that occurs in vitro can happen during the collection of the sample, or through the handling of the sample.

It is a significant problem for clinical testing because the lysis of red blood cells can affect the results. The contents that leak from the broken-down cells can directly impact the reading of the results, or they can cause interferences with laboratory analyzers.

Horse Blood Laked
Horse Blood Laked
Rat Cholesterol ELISA ELISA
E01A11128 BlueGene
Goat Cholesterol ELISA ELISA
E01A46041 BlueGene
Human Cholesterol ELISA ELISA
E01A2368 BlueGene
Mouse Cholesterol ELISA ELISA
E01A19869 BlueGene
Sheep Cholesterol ELISA ELISA
E01A98335 BlueGene

The magnitude of the impact is dependent on the type of test being performed and the reagents being used. Tests for potassium, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase are particularly affected by hemolysis, where the release of cellular contents into the blood plasma falsely increases the values of the target substances.

Other tests are affected in different ways. When only small levels of hemolysis are detected, the levels are reported along with the test result. When levels of hemolysis are high, the results cannot be relied on, and it calls for a recollection of the sample.

Studies have found that hemolysis is the most common cause for samples to be rejected, with 60% of rejections being attributed to hemolysis. Hemolyzed specimens are five times more frequent than the second most common cause of specimen rejection. This demonstrates the severity of the problem that hemolysis brings to the medical community.

Uterine hemorrhage

Hemorrhage from the uterine artery is most commonly seen in older multiparous mares, but has been seen in primiparous mares. Dystocia (q.v.) does not appear to increase its incidence. Hemorrhage is not always fatal if it is contained within the broad ligament and associated tissues, but the mare will exsanguinate if the hematoma ruptures into the peritoneal cavity or the uterus.

Initial signs, seen within minutes or hours of parturition, are acute moderate to severe colic and sweating, with rapid pulse, which progresses to cardiovascular shock. The mare should be kept quiet with mild sedatives and analgesics. Hypotensive tranquilizers such as acepromazine or detomidine may help to encourage clotting to occur in some cases but may risk acceler-ating cardiovascular collapse (q.v.) in others. Fluid therapy with blood or plasma expander or hypertonic saline does not seem to alter the course of the condition and may be contraindicated as it often stresses the mare and increases blood pressure and further hemorrhage, delaying clotting. Treatment with hypertonic saline solutions has been reported to be useful in some cases. In mares that survive, the hematoma will be palpable for some considerable time.

Horse IgG

31C-CH0801 Fitzgerald 50 mg Ask for price

Horse IgM

31C-CH0813 Fitzgerald 1 mg 369 EUR

Horse IgG

E61I024 EnoGene 1mg 225 EUR

Horse CRP

8108 Life Diagnostics 0.1 mg 320 EUR

Horse IgG

IHR-8160-10 ImmunoBioscience 10 mg 47.75 EUR

Horse IgG

IHR-8160-100 ImmunoBioscience 100 mg 88.2 EUR

Horse GGTP

QY-E120082 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 573.6 EUR

Horse Serum

abx098260-100ml Abbexa 100 ml 410.4 EUR

Horse serum

IHR-8139 ImmunoBioscience 20 ml 47.75 EUR

Horse serum

abx810187-10nmol Abbexa 10 nmol 287.5 EUR

Horse serum

abx810187-5nmol Abbexa 5 nmol 250 EUR

Horse Blocker

20960002-1 Glycomatrix 100 mL 53.99 EUR

Horse Blocker

20960002-2 Glycomatrix 200 mL 78.08 EUR

Horse Glucose

QY-E120080 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 573.6 EUR

Horse Lactate

QY-E120087 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 573.6 EUR

Horse Haptoglobin

8150 Life Diagnostics 1 mg 275 EUR

Horse IgG (Fc)

31C-CH0804 Fitzgerald 1 mg 304 EUR

Horse IgG (HRP)

65C-CH0803 Fitzgerald 1 mg 169 EUR

Horse IgG (Fab)

31C-CH0810 Fitzgerald 2 mg 342 EUR

Horse IgG (FITC)

65C-CH0802 Fitzgerald 1 mg 148 EUR


KT-487 Kamiya Biomedical Company 96 tests 524 EUR


KT-609 Kamiya Biomedical Company 96 tests 524 EUR


KT-610 Kamiya Biomedical Company 96 tests 524 EUR


KT-611 Kamiya Biomedical Company 96 tests 524 EUR


KT-660 Kamiya Biomedical Company 96 tests 573 EUR

Horse Serum - 100ml

HO-290/100 Biosera France - Medical Scientific Equipment 100ml 10.29 EUR

Horse Serum - 500ml

HO-290/500 Biosera France - Medical Scientific Equipment 500ml 37.9 EUR

Horse Ig fraction

31R-1005 Fitzgerald 10 mg 136.8 EUR

Horse Ig fraction

31R-1029 Fitzgerald 10 mg 92 EUR

Horse IgG protein

31R-1055 Fitzgerald 10 mg 153 EUR

Doner Horse Serum

F0605-050 GenDepot 500ml 181.2 EUR

Horse Genomic DNA

PCR-706 Jena Bioscience GmbH 20µg 90.1 EUR

Donor Horse Serum

SER006 Neuromics each 46.8 EUR

Normal Horse Serum

88-NE21 Fitzgerald 100 ml Ask for price

Normal Horse Serum

88R-1020 Fitzgerald 10 ml 166 EUR

Horse RBC antibody

20R-RR023 Fitzgerald 20 mg 389 EUR

Horse RBC antibody

20R-RR024 Fitzgerald 5 mg 676 EUR

Horse IgA Antibody

GWB-Q00116 GenWay Biotech 2 ml Ask for price

Horse CD4 Antibody

GWB-Q00961 GenWay Biotech 2 ml Ask for price

Horse CD2 Antibody

GWB-Q01398 GenWay Biotech 2 ml Ask for price

Horse IgM Antibody

GWB-9864FA GenWay Biotech 1 mg Ask for price

Horse IgA Antibody

GWB-AD0357 GenWay Biotech 1 mg Ask for price

Horse thyroxine(T4)

QY-E120089 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 573.6 EUR

Horse Cortisol(COR)

QY-E120091 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 573.6 EUR

Horse Estrogen-E-

QY-E120100 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 580 EUR

Horse Serum Albumin

30R-3300 Fitzgerald 10 mg 229 EUR

Horse Latherin (LATH)

1-CSB-YP306756HO Cusabio
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  • 100ug
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  • 1MG
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Horse Serum (Sterile)

20-abx800049 Abbexa
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  • 100 ml
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  • 50 ml

Horse Serum (Sterile)

abx800049-1L Abbexa 1 L 1579.2 EUR

Horse Serum Albumin

CSB-NP000401Hs Cusabio 10mg Ask for price

Horse CD44 Antibody

GWB-Q00962 GenWay Biotech 2 ml Ask for price

Horse Decorin-DCN-

QY-E120106 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 580 EUR

Horse Serum (Sterile)

abx800049-10nmol Abbexa 10 nmol 2400 EUR

Horse Serum (Sterile)

abx800049-5nmol Abbexa 5 nmol 1400 EUR

Horse Gamma Globulin

29305-1 Pel-Freez 1g 154.8 EUR

Horse Gamma Globulin

29305-2 Pel-Freez 10g 544.8 EUR

Horse Gamma Globulin

29305-5 Pel-Freez 500g 500.4 EUR

Ferritin (horse spleen)

F01000 Pfaltz & Bauer 100MG 370.9 EUR

Horse IgG (H + L)

31R-1006 Fitzgerald 10 mg 123 EUR

Horse IgG (H + L)

31R-1030 Fitzgerald 10 mg 123 EUR

Recombinant Horse TNFA

P0277 FN Test 100ug 626.83 EUR

Horse IgG (Fc) (HRP)

65C-CH0806 Fitzgerald 1 mg 423 EUR

Horse IgG (Fab'2)

31C-CH0807 Fitzgerald 2 mg 346 EUR

Horse Immunoglobulin G

CSB-NP001001Hs Cusabio 10mg Ask for price

Horse Haptoglobin ELISA

KT-424 Kamiya Biomedical Company 96 tests 537 EUR

Horse Haptoglobin ELISA

KT-488 Kamiya Biomedical Company 96 tests 524 EUR

Recombinant Horse Leptin

7-01174 CHI Scientific 20µg Ask for price

Recombinant Horse Leptin

7-01175 CHI Scientific 100µg Ask for price

Recombinant Horse Leptin

7-01176 CHI Scientific 1mg Ask for price

Horse Erythropoietin (EPO)

1-CSB-EP007743HO Cusabio
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Defibrinated Horse Blood

MED1302 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 18.24 EUR

Defibrinated Horse Blood

MED1304 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 134.52 EUR

Defibrinated Horse Blood

MED1306 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 82.08 EUR

Recombinant Horse Leptin

cyt-504-100g ProSpec Tany 100µg 300 EUR

Recombinant Horse Leptin

cyt-504-1mg ProSpec Tany 1mg 1800 EUR

Recombinant Horse Leptin

cyt-504-20g ProSpec Tany 20µg 100 EUR

Horse IgG (Fc) (FITC)

65C-CH0805 Fitzgerald 1 mg 362 EUR

Source :

  1. NCBI
  2. Gentaur


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