While the developed nations are discussing giving a third dose of the COVID-19 vaccine to immunocompromised individuals, there are still challenges that are of global concern, especially in developing countries. The Delta variant which is predominantly responsible for the disease burden has now been reported in over 148 countries. The catastrophe caused in the Indian subcontinent has highlighted some associations, most notable being the unprecedented rise in the cases of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients referred to as CAM (COVID-19 associated mucormycosis).
This life-threatening opportunistic fungal infection which was historically associated with immunosuppression has reached a new peak as its incidence has increased many folds with the advent of COVID-19. Here we present one of the very first Case reports on how to post COVID immunosuppression state, uncontrolled blood sugar levels in the background of diabetic ketoacidosis led to the development of pulmonary mucormycosis with superimposed pulmonary tuberculosis and later Sino-nasal mucormycosis eventually leading to life-threatening massive hemoptysis, causing mortality of a post-COVID-19 infected middle-aged diabetic Asian male patient who presented twenty days after COVID-19 infection.
However, our patient did not have risk factors such as severe COVID-19 infection requiring hospitalization, use of steroids or other immunomodulatory drugs like remdesivir or tocilizumab. Our case report aims to bring forth this post COVID pulmonary mucormycosis with pulmonary tuberculosis association as well as highlight the fact that tuberculosis is still a major public health burden that should not be forgotten in the fight to combat the pandemic.
Massive hemoptysis causing mortality in a post COVID-19 infected Asian male patient: Presenting as pulmonary mucormycosis, pulmonary tuberculosis and later sino-nasal mucormycosis

Drug resistant tuberculosis cases from the Copperbelt province and Northern regions of Zambia: Genetic diversity, demographic and clinical characteristics

Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a major cause of death worldwide. Diverse genotypes have been demonstrated to drive the epidemiology of drug resistant (DR-) TB globally. Currently, there is limited knowledge on the genotypes and transmission dynamics of M. tuberculosis in Zambia.
This study aimed to describe the genotypes of DR-TB from the Copperbelt and Northern regions of Zambia. Molecular typing tools of insertion sequence 6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP) and spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) were applied. We demonstrate that diverse genotypes are associated with DR-TB in Zambia. The predominant genotype was lineage 4; other strains belonged to lineage 2 and 3.
Genotypes previously identified as driving the epidemiology of drug susceptible TB have been identified as drivers of DR-TB. Genotyping analysis showed clustering of strains among patients from different regions of the country; suggesting that DR-TB is widespread. Molecular findings combined with phenotypic and epidemiologic findings play a critical role in identifying circulating genotypes and possible transmission chains. Clustering of drug resistant strains was demonstrated to be 48% and 86% according to IS6110-RFLP and spoligotyping, respectively. However, gaps in clinical and demographic data skew the interpretation, and call for data collection policy improvements.

Engaging frontline providers: an important key to eliminating tuberculosis in Canada, and other high-income countries

The greatest human cost of the rapidly moving pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 may be due to its impact on the response to other diseases. One such other disease is tuberculosis (TB). All indications suggest that COVID-19-related diversions of healthcare resources and disruptions to public health programming will exacerbate the slower moving pandemic of TB. This is expected to set back TB elimination efforts by years.
This is a prediction that is especially relevant to Canada, which has repeatedly failed to meet pre-set targets for the elimination of TB even before the COVID-19 pandemic began. A collaborative approach to achieve TB elimination, one that engages all care providers, has recently been emphasized by the STOP-TB Partnership.
Among TB elimination strategies, frontline providers (e.g., family physicians, emergency room physicians, and others) are well positioned to identify candidates for the treatment of latent TB infection, and make the diagnosis of infection-spreading cases of TB in a timely manner, thereby interrupting forward-moving chains of transmission. Electronic medical records offer the promise of automating these processes. In this commentary, we promote broader engagement of the workforce across multiple sectors of medicine to reduce TB associated morbidity and mortality, interrupt transmission, and shrink the reservoir of latent TB infection.

Massive hemoptysis causing mortality in a post COVID-19 infected Asian male patient: Presenting as pulmonary mucormycosis, pulmonary tuberculosis and later sino-nasal mucormycosis

While the developed nations are discussing giving a third dose of the COVID-19 vaccine to immunocompromised individuals, there are still challenges that are of global concern, especially in developing countries. The Delta variant which is predominantly responsible for the disease burden has now been reported in over 148 countries. The catastrophe caused in the Indian subcontinent has highlighted some associations, most notable being the unprecedented rise in the cases of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients referred to as CAM (COVID-19 associated mucormycosis).
This life-threatening opportunistic fungal infection which was historically associated with immunosuppression has reached a new peak as its incidence has increased many folds with the advent of COVID-19. Here we present one of the very first Case reports on how to post COVID immunosuppression state, uncontrolled blood sugar levels in the background of diabetic ketoacidosis led to the development of pulmonary mucormycosis with superimposed pulmonary tuberculosis and later Sino-nasal mucormycosis eventually leading to life-threatening massive hemoptysis, causing mortality of a post-COVID-19 infected middle-aged diabetic Asian male patient who presented twenty days after COVID-19 infection.
Massive hemoptysis causing mortality in a post COVID-19 infected Asian male patient: Presenting as pulmonary mucormycosis, pulmonary tuberculosis and later sino-nasal mucormycosis
However, our patient did not have risk factors such as severe COVID-19 infection requiring hospitalization, use of steroids or other immunomodulatory drugs like remdesivir or tocilizumab. Our case report aims to bring forth this post COVID pulmonary mucormycosis with pulmonary tuberculosis association as well as highlight the fact that tuberculosis is still a major public health burden that should not be forgotten in the fight to combat the pandemic.

Childhood Intra-Thoracic Tuberculosis Clinical Presentation Determines Yield of Laboratory Diagnostic Assays

Diagnosis of intra-thoracic tuberculosis (ITTB) in children is difficult due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease, the challenge in collecting appropriate specimens, and the low sensitivity of smear microscopy and culture. Culture and Xpert MTB/RIF provide higher diagnostic yield in presumptive TB in adults than in children. Current study was designed to understand poor yield of diagnostic assays in children.
Children with presumptive ITTB were subjected to gastric aspirates and induced sputum twice. Samples were tested by Ziehl-Neelsen stain, Xpert MTB/RIF-assay, and MGIT-960 culture. Subjects were grouped as Confirmed, Unconfirmed, and Unlikely TB, and classified as progressive primary disease (PPD, lung parenchymal lesion), and primary pulmonary complex (PPC, hilar lymphadenopathy) on chest X-ray.
Of children with culture-positive TB 51/394 (12.9%), culture-negative TB 305 (77.4%), and unlikely TB 38 (9.6%), 9 (2.3%) were smear positive, while 95 (24.1%) were Xpert-MTB/RIF positive. Xpert-MTB/RIF detected 40/51 culture confirmed cases (sensitivity 78.4% and NPV 96.3%). Culture was positive in more children presenting as PPD (p < 0.04). In culture-negative TB group, Xpert positivity was seen in 31% of those with PPD and 11.9% in those with PPC (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Xpert-MTB/RIF improved diagnosis by 2-fold and increased detection of MDR-TB.
Both liquid culture and Xpert-MTB/RIF gave higher yield in children with lung parenchymal lesions. Children with hilar lymphadenopathy without active lung parenchymal lesions had poor diagnostic yield even with sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests, due to paucibacillary/localized disease, suggesting possible utility of invasively collected samples in early diagnosis and treatment.

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