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 Gene Profiles

  RV1513C is profiled in 7 experiments

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Unique roles of DosT and DosS in DosR regulon induction and Mycobacterium tuberculosis dormancy.

Honaker RW, et al. (2009) Infect Immun 77(8):3258-63

In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the sensor kinases DosT and DosS activate the transcriptional regulator DosR, resulting in the induction of the DosR regulon, which is important for anaerobic survival and perhaps latent infection. The individual and collective roles of these sensors have been postulated biochemically, but their roles in vivo have remained unclear. Various DosS and DosT mutant strains were analyzed ... Expand against wild type (reference strain H37Rv, identical conditions as mutant) under various conditions: day 6 in an anaerobic dormancy model, 4 or 24 hours in a GasPak model, or log phase with the addition of a nitric oxide donor. Experiments were repeated in triplicate or quadruplicate. This work demonstrates distinct and additive roles for each sensor during anaerobic dormancy. Both sensors are necessary for wild-type levels of DosR regulon induction, and concomitantly, full induction of the regulon is required for wild-type anaerobic survival. In the anaerobic model, DosT plays an early role, responding to hypoxia. DosT then induces the regulon and with it DosS, which sustains and further induces the regulon. DosT then loses its functionality as oxygen becomes limited, and DosS alone maintains induction of the genes from that point forward. Thus, M. tuberculosis has evolved a system whereby it responds to hypoxic conditions in a stepwise fashion as it enters an anaerobic state. Hide text

View RV1513C gene profile across 36 experiments

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The three RelE homologs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have individual, drug-specific effects on bacterial antibiotic tolerance.

Singh R, et al. (2010) J Bacteriol 192(5):1279-91

In Escherichia coli, expression of the RelE and HipA toxins in the absence of their cognate antitoxins has been associated with generating multidrug-tolerant "persisters." The current study is aimed at understanding the mechanism of action of the RelE family of toxins on the metabolism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To this effect, toxin expression was induced under the control of a tetracycline regulatable promoter ... Expand and transcriptional profiles compared during overexpression of the three RelE toxin family members, namely RelE1, RelE2 and RelE3. RNA isolated from cells where toxin expression was induced with anhydrotetracycline was converted to Cy5-labeled cDNA whereas RNA derived from cells in which toxin expression was not induced (treated with ethanol solvent only) was converted to Cy3-labeled cDNA. 6 hours, 24 hours and 72 hours time points were taken for each overexpression condition. Treatments were performed independently a minimum of two times to give independent biological replicates. Hide text

View RV1513C gene profile across 32 experiments

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The Differential Gene Expression Pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Response to Capreomycin and PA-824 versus First-Line TB Drugs Reveals Stress- and PE/PPE-Related Drug Targets.

Fu LM and Tai SC (2009) Int J Microbiol 2009():879621

Tuberculosis is a leading infectious disease causing millions of deaths each year. How to eradicate mycobacterial persistence has become a central research focus for developing next-generation TB drugs. Yet, the knowledge in this area is fundamentally limited and only a few drugs, notably capreomycin and PA-824, have been shown to be active against non-replicating persistent TB bacilli. In this study, we performed a ... Expand new bioinformatics analysis on microarray-based gene expression data obtained from the public domain to explore genes that were differentially induced by drugs between the group of capreomycin and PA-824 and the group of mainly the first-line TB drugs. Our study has identified 42 genes specifically induced by capreomycin and PA-824. Many of these genes are related to stress responses. In terms of the distribution of identified genes in a specific category relative to the whole genome, only the categories of PE/PPE and conserved hypotheticals have statistical significance. Six among the 42 genes identified in this study are on the list of the top 100 persistence targets selected by the TB Structural Genomics Consortium. Further biological elucidation of their roles in mycobacterial persistence is warranted. PMID: 20016672 Hide text

View RV1513C gene profile across 10 experiments

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The mechanism of action of PA-824: Novel insights from transcriptional profiling.

Manjunatha U, et al. (2009) Commun Integr Biol 2(3):215-8

The bicyclic nitroimidazole PA-824 is a pro-drug with a very complex mechanism of action active against both replicating and hypoxic, non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Microarray analysis of the mode of action of PA-824 showed a puzzling mixed effect both on genes responsive to both cell wall inhibition (like isoniazid) and respiratory poisoning (like cyanide). The aerobic killing mechanism of this drug ... Expand appears to involve inhibition of cell wall mycolic acid biosynthesis through an as yet unknown molecular mechanism. However, the structure-activity relationships governing aerobic activity do not parallel the relationships determining anaerobic activity. Based on the metabolite profiling of PA-824 and various derivatives by Ddn-mediated activation, we have shown that PA-824 acts directly as an NO donor.1 This respiratory poisoning through nitric oxide release seemed to be a crucial element of anaerobic activity by PA-824. The effect of PA-824 on the respiratory complex under hypoxic non-replicating conditions was also manifested in a rapid drop in intracellular ATP levels, again similar to that observed by cyanide treatment. Thus, transcriptional profiling provided valuable clues to elucidating the molecular mechanism of mycobacterial killing. Hide text

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis senses host-derived carbon monoxide during macrophage infection.

Shiloh MU, et al. (2008) Cell Host Microbe 3(5):323-30

Transcriptional profiling of M. tuberculosis growing in log phase treated with various concentrations of carbon monoxide versus untreated controls Keywords: Dose response Two condition experiment, CO treated cells at 2000, 200 and 20 ppm versus untreated controls. Biological replicates: 2 replicates per dose, 1 array per ... Expand replicate Hide text

View RV1513C gene profile across 6 experiments

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The transcriptional responses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to inhibitors of metabolism: novel insights into drug mechanisms of action.

Boshoff HI, et al. (2004) J Biol Chem 279(38):40174-84

Mycobacterium tuberculosis to drugs and growth-inhibitory conditions was monitored to generate a data set of 430 microarray profiles. Unbiased grouping of these profiles independently clustered agents of known mechanism of action accurately and was successful at predicting the mechanism of action of several unknown agents. These predictions were validated biochemically for two agents of previously uncategorized ... Expand mechanism, pyridoacridones and phenothiazines. Analysis of this data set further revealed 150 underlying clusters of coordinately regulated genes offering the first glimpse at the full metabolic potential of this organism. A signature subset of these gene clusters was sufficient to classify all known agents as to mechanism of action. Transcriptional profiling of both crude and purified natural products can provide critical information on both mechanism and detoxification prior to purification that can be used to guide the drug discovery process. Thus, the transcriptional profile generated by a crude marine natural product recapitulated the mechanistic prediction from the pure active component. The underlying gene clusters further provide fundamental insights into the metabolic response of bacteria to drug-induced stress and provide a rational basis for the selection of critical metabolic targets for screening for new agents with improved activity against this important human pathogen. Hide text

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Bioactive Pyridine-N-oxide Disulfides from Allium stipitatum

O'Donnell G, et al. (2009) J Nat Prod 72(3):360-365

In this study, the researchers isolated a colorless waxy solid from the chloroform extract of Allium stipitatum as Compound 1. They demonstrated compound 1 is a potent bactericidal agent against nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Using microarray technology the authors report gene expression profiles in cells treated with either 2, 5, or 10 ug/ml of compound 1 or an equivalent amount of DMSO as ... Expand control for 6 h. Gene expression studies revealed that transcriptional profiles elicited in response to compound 1 were similar to the profiles generated during treatment of cells with compounds such as menadione and 8-quinolinol that result in oxidative stress. They included the thioredoxin system components encoded by trxB2 and trxC as well as several genes associated with the heat shock response such as clpB, sigH, dnaJ, dnaK, hsp, Rv0331, Rv3463, Rv3054c, and Rv1334-Rv1335. These results suggest that compound 1 possibly generates damaged proteins and other oxidative stress signals as part of its mechanism of action.

The following is the full abstract of this published study.
O'Donnell G, et al. (2009) J Nat Prod 72(3):360-365
From Allium stipitatum, three pyridine-N-oxide alkaloids (1-3) possessing disulfide functional groups were isolated. The structures of these natural products were elucidated by spectroscopic means as 2-(methyldithio)pyridine-N-oxide (1), 2-[(methylthiomethyl)dithio]pyridine-N-oxide (2), and 2,2'-dithio-bis-pyridine-N-oxide (3). The proposed structure of 1 was confirmed by synthetic S-methylthiolation of commercial 2-thiopyridine-N-oxide. Compounds 1 and 2 are new natural products, and 3 is reported for the first time from an Allium species. All compounds were evaluated for activity against fast-growing species of Mycobacterium, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and a multidrug-resistant (MDR) variants of S. aureus. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.5-8 mug/ml against these strains. A small series of analogues of 1 were synthesized in an attempt to optimize antibacterial activity, although the natural product had the most potent in vitro activity. In a whole-cell assay at 30 mug/ml, 1 was shown to give complete inhibition of the incorporation of (14)C-labeled acetate into soluble fatty acids, indicating that it is potentially an inhibitor of fatty acid biosynthesis. In a human cancer cell line antiproliferative assay, 1 and 2 displayed IC(50) values ranging from 0.3 to 1.8 muM with a selectivity index of 2.3 when compared to a human somatic cell line. Compound 1 was evaluated in a microarray analysis that indicated a similar mode of action to menadione and 8-quinolinol by interfering with the thioredoxin system and up-regulating the production of various heat shock proteins. This compound was also assessed in a mouse model for in vivo toxicity. Hide text

View RV1513C gene profile across 4 experiments

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